Fibre Design and Installation
If this is your first fibre completion, or your 10th, the design aspect is critical to ensuring you have a successful operation. Working in partnership with Optasense, as fibre optic cable installation contractors, we offer knowledge and experience from cable selection to clamp design.
On monobore designs, hole size must be increased by 10% OD or more, to accommodate cross-coupling clamps, blast protectors and ensure adequate cement coverage.
An engineered solution for cementing is critical for fibre longevity and distributed temperature sensing accuracy. Many operators overlook the importance of this operation – and are left with poor bond and exposed fibre during the frac operation
Special cross-couple clamps are required for all installations to secure it to the casing.
Blast protectors are routinely added within the casing string to protect the fibre from perforating and frac operations. In the event that cementing is poor, the protectors may protect the fibre from erosion.
Some designs do not account for protectors, which may look attractive on cost – yet risk is increased because of this.
Not all fibre on the market is suitable for harsh environments.
FCS offers a rigid cable that is capable of withstanding the tensile and erosional risks associated with running to bottom and fracing, leading to more accurate distributed acoustic sensing.
FCS’s flatpack design with wire rope internal to the jacket ensures more protection to the fibre – this design is the most robust cable on the market.
Perforating & Cluster Design
An optimized completion strategy doesn’t mean adding more holes and clusters to a stage.
One size does not fit all. Targeting optimal cluster efficiency starts with pressure differentials across the perforations. Without this, cluster efficiency will be poor, and distributed temperature sensing would be less accurate.
Variables to consider:
1. Limited entry / extreme limited entry.
2. Number of clusters.
3. Cement bond.
4. Acid placement prior to perforating, including the volume pumped.
5. Diverter strategy.
6. Erosional effects.
FCS, as experienced fibre optic cable installation contractors, can assist with the perforation and cluster design, ensuring a more uniform sand distribution across the stage. From experience across a number of operations, we’ve seen what’s efficient, and what isn’t.
1. External weight bar systems – this type of carrier and build vary by provider, and usually orientates multiple carriers by either one or two weight bars attached above and below the BHA.
External bars are not all equal, and must be evaluated closely if this type of build is selected.
2. Internal orientating systems – each carrier will have it’s own dedicated orientation module included internally. This allows for selective orientation within the same BHA where multiple guns may be run.
3. External hybrid systems – An enclosed external weight bar, located inside of a blank carrier, installed above the BHA. This is not the same as an internal orientation system. The enclosed weight bar is used to pivot the entire BHA.
Perforating around the fibre is a high risk operation, selecting the right type of gun is critical. We have experience with both systems – and would be happy to discuss what’s appropriate for your fibre completion.
Perforation and Cluster Variability
Optimize your completion by adding variability to your design.
One of the key benefits of a fibre completion is learning what works for your reservoir. Improve your cluster efficiency and spacing, while reducing cost on future completions and increasing efficiency of your distributed acoustic sensing.
FCS can assist with a reservoir specific design, targeting cluster/shot variability over a number of stages.
Prior to perforating, the cable location must be identified through orientation logging. From heel to toe, the cable will never be at the same angle, therefore logging is required to ensure the fibre is not perforated, improving distributed temperature sensing.
The most common method of locating the fibre is utilizing a logging suite which detects metal mass – which would be the clamps installed to secure the fibre string to the casing.
Once the increased metal mass has been detected and orientation determined, accurate perforating angles can be determined by our fibre optic installation contractors for the completion.
Services offered for mapping:
1. Tool selection and bench testing
2. Mapping program
3. Detailed joint by joint report of fibre location, including tally
4. Stage orientation recommendation for perforating
The two most common methods for running the logging suite to bottom is either coil or tractor deployed.
Cost is a consideration for the determination of which service, yet both have risks that must be known. Through our experience, we uinderstand the limitations of each, contact us today to learn more.
Fibre Failure Prevention
Fracing with fibre requires experience. Don’t push the limits of your fibre string without understanding the risks.
We offer a complete on-site solution to ensure your fibre survives the stimulation, allowing you to acquire distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing data for the life of the fibre.
Orientated perforating is not common practice for some fibre optic cable installation contractors. Based on the type of gun selected, orientation and alignment will be different. We have witnessed many guns mis-aligned due to poor make-up procedures.
FCS offers the following for perforating services:
1. Gun barrel alignment to 0 degree phasing.
2. Gun loading and charge orientation confirmation.
3. Final orientated make-up and alignment.
4. Detonation witness and fibre connection confirmation.
5. Spent gun inspection.
The majority of fibre failures occur during the stimulation, with the two most common root causes:
1. Poor cement coverage
2. Low cluster efficiency
Both of these failures can be mitigated by adjusting the fracture treatment – yet requires knowledge and an understanding of fibre limitations.
FCS utilizes an in-house developed program for estimating downhole velocities, which is used to understand the erosional impact on the fibre. All velocity data is retained so that we can better understand the failure limitations, and improve distributed temperature sensing and distributed acoustic sensing information.
Services that you can expect from FCS during the stimulation:
1. 24 hour on-site frac support.
2. Erosional risk review during every frac.
3. Fracture treatment advisement where required to prevent failure.
4. Diverter strategies to minimize erosional concerns on poor performing clusters.
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Calgary, AB T2R 0C5