Mitigating Risk, One Frac At a Time.
Shot depth confirmation, utilizing distributed acoustic sensing data.
Orientated Perforating – QA/QC
Orientated perforating is not common practice in the industry. General applications for shooting in a single phase are for sand prevention and improved stimulation with respect to rock stress.
For fibre optic systems, shooting at 0° phasing is required in order to not perforate the cable. What becomes difficult is that the fibre will be at varying orientations along the lateral. In some instances, FCS noted the fibre shifted 180° over a single joint of casing.
To ensure the fibre is not perforated, FCS employs a field consultant to inspect every gun prior to going in the wellbore. The previously mapped orientations for each cluster are confirmed with every gun build, including the final gun assembly make-up.
Common problems observed in the field have centered around wireline operators experience with gun orientation, gun body make-up and reference measurements for orientation setting. FCS understands all gun build’s, and often assists with training the wireline crew for orientation.
FCS offers the following on-site protocols for perforating:
1. Gun barrel alignment to 0° phasing.
2. Gun loading and charge orientation confirmation.
3. Final orientated make-up and alignment.
4. Detonation witness and fibre connection confirmation.
5. Spent gun inspection.
Depending on the type of orientated system selected, the gun barrel will be bench inspected for the required orientation, prior to loading into the gun body.
Stages can be as little as one cluster, or as many as 10. On a number of operations, FCS noted that each gun required a separate orientation to ensure the fibre was not shot.
With every gun run, FCS inspects, marks and records the gun make-up and final orientation.
Whether an internally or externally orientated system is run, the final gun assembly must be orientated – with respect to the reference point.
FCS witnesses, adjusts and approves all orientated assemblies prior to running the system in the well.
With the guns in position, FCS verifies the shot depth for each cluster with the wireline operator. Upon detonation, the fibre is referenced for communication and on-depth shots using distributed acoustic sensing data.
Every gun is inspected for the shot orientation, and recorded for verification and daily reporting.
This procedure has resulted in wireline operators altering their gun make-up procedures, after shots were noted to be out of phase.
FCS will ensure that guns are set to the required tolerances, and advise on adjustments to be made, in the event of poor orientation due to make-up.
Fibre Failure Prevention
Fracing with fibre requires experience. Don’t push the limits of your fibre string without understanding the risks.
We offer a complete on-site solution to ensure your fibre survives the stimulation, allowing you to acquire production data for the life of the fibre.
The majority of fibre failures occur during the stimulation, with the two most common root causes:
1. Poor cement coverage
2. Low cluster efficiency
Both of these failures can be mitigated by adjusting the fracture treatment – yet requires knowledge and an understanding of fibre limitations. For FCS, distributed acoustic sensing data is the preferred method when monitoring for cable failure. Distributed temperature sensing data is an additional resource for confirmation.
FCS utilizes an in-house developed program for estimating downhole velocities, which is used to understand the erosional impact on the fibre. All velocity data is retained so that we can better understand the failure limitations.
Services that you can expect from FCS during the stimulation:
1. 24 hour on-site frac support.
2. Erosional risk review during every frac.
3. Fracture treatment advisement where required to prevent failure.
4. Diverter strategies to minimize erosional concerns on poor performing clusters.
Fibre failure due to poor cement coverage along the lateral
Fibre failure due to low cluster efficiency and resulting erosional effects across the cable
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Calgary, AB T2R 0C5